Thursday, September 3, 2020

Introduction Of Gibraltar Mine Commerce Essay

Gibraltar mine is the second biggest loosened hole Cu mine in Canada, which is situated close to Williams Lake in British Columbia. The Gibraltar sedimentation is a copper-molybdenum porphyritic stone. The main essential mineral is sulfide mineral Pyrite and Chalcopyrite. As the state armies announcement at December 31, 2008, Gibraltar mine got a mine life to at any rate 2035. In the wake of completing the Phase I and A ; II endeavors, the Gibraltar mine accomplishes the limit of 55,000 metric tons for every twenty-four hours. There are two kinds of mineralization metals, which are sulfide metal and oxide metal. The previous 1 should be possible by the customary mineral preparing technique, and the last one ought to be finished by the strategy called SX/EW ( dissolvable extraction electro-winning ) . Gibraltar mine other than refreshed their removal and preparing supplies for the turn of events. Extra, Gibraltar mine has done an extraordinary occupation on nature and manageability is sues.OverviewLocationThe Gibraltar copper-molybdenum mine is situated around 65 km Northwest of Williams Lake in south-focal British Columbia with an all around created base. The mine is available by a mix of principle streets ( 97 ) and cleared streets, and it is near a rail web that offers support for freight of Cu dressed metals through the Pacific Ocean port of North Vancouver ( Taseko, 2009 ) . Figure 1: Gibraltar †Regional Location ( Beginning: Taseko, 2009 )PropertiesThe Gibraltar mine is the second biggest detached pit Cu mine in Canada ( Gibraltar, 2009 ) . The mine is a 46,000 metric tons for each twenty-four hours activity with an existence of mine mean one-year creation of 100 million lbs of Cu and 1.1 million lbs of Mo. The mine is experiencing an amplification and modernisation undertaking that will expand one-year Cu creation ability to 115 million lbs by 2011 ( Taseko, 2009 ) . Figure 2: The Satellite View of the Gibraltar Mine ( Beginning: Google Earth, 2009 )Brief historyThe advancement of the mine is as follow ( MREP, 2009 ) , 1910 The Gibraltar metal sedimentation was principal found 1971 Originally worked by Placer Development 1972 Began activity, 24 hours/day, 7 yearss a hebdomad 1998 Shutdown by Boliden because of the low Cu financial qualities after 26 mature ages activity 1999 Acquired by Taseko Mines Limited ( 100 % ) , put on reserve 2003 Copper financial qualities start to increment, explorative exhausting arrangement started 2004 Reopened, and the SX-EW works was being restarted 2006 An all-encompassing exhausting arrangement found additional 30 % of local armies 2008 Gibraltar demonstrated and likely civilian armies are expanded by 28 % to 472 million metric tons, or 2.7 billion lbs of recoverable Cu broadening mine life to 2035 ( Gibraltar, 2009 ) 2009 Prosperity Environmental Assessment study is submitted to both Provincial and Federal authoritiessGeologyFigure 3: Gibraltar †Minesite format ( Beginning: InfoMine, 2009 ) The Gibraltar sedimentation is a copper-molybdenum porphyritic stone. The main essential mineral is sulfide mineral Pyrite and Chalcopyrite. The metal happens in seven withdrew zones, all inside a 204 million twelvemonth old hard stone. The mineralized zones are Gibraltar East, Pollyanna, Gibraltar West, Gibraltar West Extension, Gibraltar North, Connector and Granite Lake ( MREP, 2009 ) . â€Å" The pits happen inside the Granite Mountain batholite in a wide zone of shearing and change. The Sawmill zone lies around 6 kilometers toward the South, along the southern fringe of the batholite, inside an intricate contact zone between the batholite and Cache Creek Group stones † ( InfoMine, 2009 ) . The mine site covers around 109 square kilometers and comprises essentially of 251 mineral cases and 30 exhuming rentals ( InfoMine, 2009 ) . At the point when the mine restarted in 2004, volunteer armies were only 149 million metric tons, or around 12 mature ages of mine life. The crucial the Gibraltar mine heading crew is to build state armies and augment the mine life. In the course of the last four mature ages, over $ 20 million has been spent on three significant drill designs, each arrangement resulting in a significant expansion to turn out and likely state armies. The latest drill plan, in the spring and summer of 2008, brought about a 28 % expansion to turn out and likely civilian armies, as reported in December 2008. Under present volunteer armies, the mine is required to remain in current activity situation until in any event 2035. Here is the announcement at December 31, 2008. Table 1: Calpe Militias and Resources at December 31, 2008 Class ( at 0.20 % Cu Cut-off ) Size ( M Tons ) Class Recoverable Metallic component Contained Metallic component Cu ( % ) Mo ( % ) Cu ( B pound ) Cu ( B pound ) Demonstrated and A ; Probable Militias 472 0.315 0.008 2.7 3.0 Estimated and A ; Indicated Resources 959 0.298 0.008â€5.7 ( Beginning: Gibraltar, 2009 )FinanceTaseko Mines Limited Owns the 100 % of the Gibraltar mine ‘s association. The creation of the Gibraltar mine is appeared as beneath: Table 2: Summary of the Operating Statisticss Q2 20091 Monetary 20082 Monetary 2007 Whole metric tons mined ( 1000000s ) 14.8 51.8 35.4 Metric huge amounts of mineral processed ( 1000000s ) 6.5 13.6 9.5 Denying proportion 1.2 2.7 2.6 Copper class ( % ) 0.35 0.351 0.328 Molybdenum class ( % ) 0.011 0.009 0.011 Copper recuperation ( % ) 83.0 75.8 77.5 Molybdenum recuperation ( % ) 30.6 31.8 29.6 Copper creation ( 1000000s lb ) 39.0 76.9 51.8 Molybdenum creation ( 1000s lb ) 404 840 580 Copper creation costs, the internet of by stock credits, per pound of Cu US $ 0.94 US $ 1.87 US $ 1.03 Off effects costs for movement, mediation ( purifying and A ; refinement ) and A ; net incomes for every pound of Cu US $ 0.29 US $ 0.43 US $ 0.35 Whole hard cash expenses of creation per pound of Cu US $ 1.23 US $ 2.30 US $ 1.38 Notes to defer: 1 Q2 2009 identifies with the a half year stoping June 30, 2009 2 Fiscal 2008 identifies with the 15 months stoping December 31, 2008. ( Beginning: Taseko, 2009 ) From the above even cluster, we can happen that the denying apportion of the Gibraltar mine is at an essentially diminished contrasted and the front mature ages. Orchestrating the Taseko mines Second Quarter Results, the Gibraltar dig â€Å" worked for the initial a half year of 2009 under a program started in November 2008, in view of 45,000 metric tons for every twenty-four hours processing plant † ( Taseko, 2009 ) . â€Å" This new operational program alongside declining input costs, and the acknowledgment of the Phase I amplification, brought about very much decreased expenses contrasted with earlier mature ages. The mine is by and by reevaluating an arrival to hold up mean strip proportion dependent on late quality in Cu and molybdenum request and relating increments in metal money related qualities † ( Taseko, 2009 ) . As known, the market of metals endured a recorded hardest clasp during 2008 and 2009, because of the planetary monetary emergency. Be that as it may, the whole hard money cost of creation per pound of Cu of Gibraltar mine declined forcefully to US $ 1.23 in 2009. Accordingly, despite the fact that the fiscal estimation of Cu has declined, Gibraltar ‘s overall gain fringe has as yet improved.MiningMining OperationMining at Gibraltar is completed using traditional detached cavity techniques in the Pollyanna on the east side of the things, which is 1.8 kilometer long by 0.7 kilometers at its most stretched out point. Penetrating is finished by an armada of 3 rotational impact opening drills, which drill 32 centimeter measurement gaps and 15 m profound. Impacting is done a few times a hebdomad and makes 13.7 m high seats in the pit divider ( MREP, 2009 ) . â€Å" Blasted metal is stacked by one of three P and A ; H scoops into one of 11 draw trucks that hold somewhere in the range of 205 and 240 metric tons each. They pull the mineral about 2.4 kilometers to a gyratory smasher situated over the pit close to the processing plant building. The draw trucks transport most waste stone to dumps along the north mass of the Pollyanna depression where they are a tiny bit at a time make fulling in the pit. Some waste stone that contains oxidized Cu mineral metal is pulled out of the hole to a save for cleaning methodology † ( MREP, 2009 ) . Blending to the Annual General Meeting Presentation, the structure for the Phase I growth and modernisation was finished in January 2008, achieving 46,000 metric tons for each twenty-four hours consistent area. What's more, Phase II development undertaking was finished in March 2009, to build the ability to 55,000 metric tons for every twenty-four hours ( Gibraltar, 2009 ) .Mining EquipmentGibraltar mi ne procured new exhuming hardware in topographic point to oversee higher processing plant rates, as underneath. Figure 4: New Mining truck †240 ton TEREX MT 4400AC ( Beginning: TEREX, 2009 ) Figure 5: New Mining Shovel †P and A ; H 4100C Electric MS ( Beginning: Zlotnikov, 2009 ; P and A ; H Mining Equipment, 2009 )ProcedureFigure 6: Mill Flowsheet of Gibraltar Mine ( Beginning: Gibraltar, 2008 )Comminution ProcedureComminution is a strategy, which breaks the stone from large balls into littler pieces thus to better molecules. There are smashers utilized for intruding on the huge stones and plane to better particles. In Gibraltar mine, the new provender and A ; crunching circuit portrayed as, ROM goes in to a gyratory smasher ( 54ãâ€"74 ) followed by four equal auxiliary smashers ( 13ãâ€"84 ) in shut circuit. At that point, the squashed metals are passed on into the 34 pess SAG industrial facility through a 45A ° transport at a pace of 49,000 metric tons for every twenty-four hours. The metal was circulated to 6 ball plant circuits, which pummel the mineral to sand. At that point, the stuff released from Millss is isolated by hydro-twisters ( The flood and lt ; 0.5mm, undercurrent and gt ; 0.5mm ) . In add-on, there are 2 re-crushing industrial facility, which are utilized to chop down the more unpleasant floatation stocks from under 0.5 millimeter to under 0.1 millimeter ( Chen, 2008 ) .Flotation ProcedureThe foam floatation is actually a physical methodology that utilization

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Loreals New Product Development Strategy Marketing Essay

Loreals New Product Development Strategy Marketing Essay This report depends on LOreals new item advancement procedure and the manner in which they have effectively figured out how to accomplish extensive pieces of the pie through steady RD endeavors. The case proceeds with a knowledge into LOreals developments that have been a triumph among the various fragments of the worldwide market. LOreal has not just followed a thorough, long haul RD procedure that has brought about making imaginative advancement items like Fructis, yet it has additionally attempted to keep up its harmony among RD and advertising interface. Organization outline LOreal UK is the Groups fourth biggest auxiliary in Europe and fifth on the planet and has been available in the UK for a long time. Additionally A critical player in the UK beautifying agents advertise, turnover in 2006 came to  £626 million and 67% of ladies in the UK utilize at least one LOreal item. Roughly 170 million units were created at the Llantrisant processing plant in 2006 and about 70% of the plant yield is sent out. abroad Recent speculations have incorporated an organic waste water treatment plant and progressively effective warming, ventilation and lighting systems.The new conveyance place neighboring the processing plant covers a zone of over 18,000m2 and can house up to 10 million items and 300 individuals are utilized at the manufacturing plant. 25% of the lasting staff has worked for LOreal for more than 20 years. ( Presentation Advancement is the most vital stage for an organization and it conveys critical hazard with regards to item disappointments that may happen directly after their dispatch in the market. The item disappointment rate can be as low as 30% and as high as 90% in such manner. (Antil, J.1988). The worldwide market is portrayed by various taste examples of purchasers. Along these lines despite quickly changing purchaser tastes, innovation and rivalry, organizations ought to constantly give the worldwide market new items that fulfill all portions of the market. This requires efficient Research Development and advancement by organizations so as to make fruitful items that have a significant market request. On account of LOreal, the organization has consistently attempted to advance through their RD endeavors. The case destinations the case of LOreals Feria go that was only advanced for Asian individuals. Item development is a mind boggling errand and it requires cautious arranging by the organi zation dependent on the previously mentioned factors. Today the worldwide market is a wildly serious condition where the significant objective for organizations is to catch expanding comes back to scale while limiting/bringing down expenses of creation with extraordinary speed and adaptability (Kotabe, 1990). LOreal as a universal chain attempts to accomplish these objectives through its steady RD advancements so as to make items that are attractive all through all global market. LOreals RD advancement consumes about 20% more for new item improvement when contrasted with its rivals, for example, Procter Gamble and Unilever, possessing number one situation in the market. For what reason is new development so significant for an organization like LOreal LOreal is a settled organization in style business and so as to keep up its boss remaining in the worldwide market, it needs to focus on the techniques it utilizes for development. The speed at which design markets change is high, with exceptionally short item life cycles. Many style things have item cycles as short as a large portion of a year, or even half a month. Purchasers inclinations rely upon the season, on the social and social condition and on the impacts of past promoting correspondence for style things or substitute items (Mintel, 2005). Reacting in a convenient manner to these changing requests is indispensable for progress. In addition, without new items, firms will unquestionably be at a stop And Research likewise features that early section of new items can bring about upper hand and long haul advertise predominance. The attributes of the style business expect organizations to settle on vital decisions about components, for example, quality, speed, innovation, cost and adaptability: these variables characterize the situating of an organization (Abell, 1993). Drawing upon the data gave for the situation study, it tends to be proposed that LOreal works in the top finish of the style showcase with clear market situating. LOreals focused on advertise sections can be described as style pioneers, and these are the clients in the high and medium fragments. They request items with creative styles, with top-level quality by researchers and fashioners that have constructed the notoriety of incredible brands. It ought to be seen that organizations that work in the mass portion which targets style supporters will in general copy the high performing results of top brands like LOreal and along these lines the upper hand of top brands subsides after some time, making item lifecycle short. Given the great expected of its items and the short item life cycle winning in style, LOreal has embraced a vertical coordination, which managed it a full control of value and activities (Erica Stefania, 2004). Along these lines, advancement is a basic and complex procedure that directly affects the companys distinction, which legitimizes the significance of such turns of events. In this way LOreal needs to think of such developments that not just intrigue to the different sections of the worldwide market, yet additionally improve the companys position once they infiltrate the market. thus LOreal would need to put vigorously in the dispatch of new items and be sure about the viability, attractiveness and common sense of these items.. In addition, fruitful advancement is probably going to win LOreal a predominant piece of the overall industry and turnover, expanding the estimation of the organization. Additionally, LOreal has been a bleeding edge of style and so as to stay aware of the desires for its purchasers, the organization needs to lay in line new recipes that are deliberately investigated and tried for their viability. For example at the point when the Japanese individuals were sick of having dark hair and required an option in contrast to western hair hues because of their poor outcomes, LOreal thought of a viable new hair equation that previously faded their hair and afterward colored them as per their attractive shading. In this manner unmistakably all together for an organization like LOreal, working in an unstable and fierce design industry, to make a maintainable upper hand ought to have a quick creative item improvement cycle. Since LOreal attempts to snatch the most extreme piece of the overall industry through the presentation of creative items that are distinctive as well as oblige the various portions of the global market. Issues of overseeing Innovation and has LOreal tackled these issues So as to dispatch new items effectively, organizations like LOreal need to invest a lot of time and vitality in innovative work. Thinking productive/viable new thoughts and actualizing them are the center issues to be tended to and in such manner LOreals RD plays out the errand of concocting fruitful advancements while the execution lies in the hands of how these developments are promoted. On the off chance that LOreal dispatches another item that can't be showcased adequately, the RD endeavors would be set apart as wasteful and pointless. Before propelling or showcasing any new item locally or globally, an organization must be certain that its development would be separated from different items and depends on buyers inclinations. Such thoughts are in all likelihood started by promoting and afterward RD assumes control over the undertaking. When the RD procedure is finished, the dispatch of new item requires the companys researchers/specialists to watch the market reality and utilize various methods of advertising their item. Any carelessness in this setting would not just outcome in item disappointments once they are propelled, however would likewise hurt the companys picture. For organizations like LOreal which keep on flourishing with advancement since great ties among showcasing and RD to play out their exercises during the way toward propelling creative items in the worldwide market. Nonetheless, reality seems somewhat perplexing on the grounds that reviews have demonstrated that RD and advertising will in general have various observations and translations of the qualities of another item, especially as far as its specialized development and the degree to which it influences the set up utilization designs. Actually, showcasing sees a progressively basic job of another item for situating in a market portion than RD. Likewise showcasing sees a higher level of customization of individual items than RD. Wang and von Tunzelmann (1997) Notwithstanding, the requirement for long haul development consistently exists and the researchers should be given some freedom to plan new equations that are not divulged except if wanted. The various perspectives on development promoting are impacted by their diverse character, social foundation, time direction, equivocalness, resistance and level of detail of language utilized (Griffin and Hauser, 1996). In this way for organizations like LOreal the development promoting interface should be overseen so that it fulfills both the requirements of advancement just as showcasing. As indicated by an examination directed by Wang in 1997 the development and showcasing capacities were found to have teamed up in achieving undertakings in three zones. * Conceptual turn of events, distinguishing and assessing important data * Strategic turn of events, showcase situating and item separation * Implementation, Internal and outer correspondence. For LOreal these three capacities are a significant thought during the time spent advancement without which developments may include a high level of hazard, bringing about item disappointments. When the idea for new item is created through exhaustive research, LOreal centers around distinguishing its objective market portions for powerful market

Comparing the Poem “Richard Corey” with Money and Happiness

Do cash and bliss go together? In the sonnet â€Å"Richard Corey ,â€Å" the writer needs the peruser to think or acknowledge the speculation that cash doesn't bring you satisfaction. There are various individuals in the open eye who might make you think, no, cash doesn't satisfy you. At that point there are individuals in the open eyes that you would think, indeed, cash can satisfy an individual. However, does cash truly satisfy you? Indeed, by and by I have never been rich. I was poor and now I have enough cash to spare and take care of tabs with the goal that I am not living check to pay check. There are well known individuals who are rich. They have sedate issues, liquor issues, and social issues with the law. They are distraught. At the point when you have a medication or a liquor issue then you are running from profound established issues. Take a gander at Charlie Sheen, Whitney Houston, Elvis Presley, Kat Williams and numerous others. These individuals have either kicked the bucket from overdoses or experience been in difficulty with the law from either liquor or medication related issues. I don’t figure all the cash on the planet would have made or fulfill them. In the event that anything, cash was a transient answer for their issues. Would they act the equivalent in the event that they were poor? There are individuals like Oprah Winfry, Beyonce Knowles, Jay-z, Michele Obama, and a lot more that you would feel that cash satisfied these individuals. They all go on trips, have decent houses, and they are not at the center of attention of the media for any medication, liquor, or negative exposure. They are continually grinning and they are family and companion arranged. So is it the cash that fulfills them? I feel we will never know. I am a long way from having a great deal of cash. My better half and I live serenely with the cash we make. We cooperate to get the cash to help our children. My better half takes a stab at his particular employment. Is it accurate to say that we are glad? Truly, we are cheerful. It’s not as a result of the cash however. We make each other cheerful. We are encircled by our loved ones. It’s the affection we have for our children, family, and each other that satisfies us. It was not generally like that for me however. With my ex, we were living check to pay check. We generally were destitute and required assistance from family constantly. My ex would not like to work and put all the worry to deal with everything on me. Is it safe to say that i was cheerful? No, consequently the explanation he is my ex. It was not a direct result of the cash however. It was on the grounds that my ex resembled dark smoke that covered me and worried me to such an extent. All in all, I don’t figure cash can satisfy an individual for the long stretch. I feel that sort of joy is for that second. Materialistic things are just there for that second. All I know is cash isn't the purpose behind my satisfaction. We as a whole have our own purposes behind our own bliss. What is yours?

Friday, August 21, 2020

European Union Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

European Union Law - Essay Example Carelessness need not be demonstrated. Any harms so granted ought to incorporate a component for torment and languishing and furthermore over loss of wages past, present and future. The Act rejects obligation for loss of wages. It likewise forces the weight of confirmation on the casualty to demonstrate his/her case. Both the Directive and the Act were planned to supplant the current national laws of carelessness corresponding to the Product. In May 2004, Byrd was endorsed a mellow soothing by his primary care physician as he was experiencing business related pressure. The Product was fabricated by Omnia Pharma PLC (â€Å"Omnia†) an organization enlisted in England. Fourteen days in the wake of beginning the treatment, Byrd built up a skin protest, decaying psoriasis, which was agonizing and furthermore disagreeable to take a gander at. Accordingly, he turned into a hermit and was excused for relentless nonattendance by his managers. From that point, he endeavored to end it all yet was found in time. He is still upset intellectually. The beginning stage is to consider what mandates are, the manner by which they are actualized and what the general impact of orders is. So as to manage the above it is important to look at the law in regards to the coupling idea of Directives. It is likewise important to look at the usage of the Directive and talk about whether there has been any break by the organization. In the event that a penetrate is set up it will, at that point be conceivable to survey what misfortunes the organization will be subject for in regard of the case by Byrd. A conversation on immediate and circuitous impact is likewise fundamental so as to set up whether Byrd can guarantee under both of these headings. So as to have the option to survey whether Francovich harms would be the best case against the UK there should be a conversation on what Francovich harms are and when these can be guaranteed. To have the option to choose whether an order is restricting it is important to comprehend what a mandate is. A mandate has been

Managing and Leading Strategic Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Overseeing and Leading Strategic Change - Essay Example Be that as it may, the expansion of the piece of the overall industry of Microsoft, the significant contender of IBM, prompted the impediment of the intensity of IBM in the worldwide market. Accenture plc and Hewlett Packard are other significant contenders of IBM (Yahoo Finance 2011). The key plans of IBM have changed commonly so as to help the expansion of the firm’s intensity towards its adversaries. In 2003-2004 a significant rebuilding of the firm’s flexibly chain the board structure occurred, intending to implement the firm’s seriousness the help the expansion of its benefits. The above arrangement is logically explored in this paper, as clarified above, planning to show the capacity of the firm to screen its activities and distinguish its shortcomings. Likewise, the readiness of the firm’s representatives to help radical hierarchical changes †all together for the firm’s execution to be settled, is basically assessed. 2. Key change in IBM 2.1 Key change designs in IBM As noted over, the vital plans of IBM have been occasionally changed so as to adjust the authoritative practices to the market patterns and the client needs. The last exertion of such kind has been created in 2009 †when the firm settled ‘the Business Analytics and Optimization (BAO) counseling administration line’ (Soejarto 2009). ... 2005) expecting to keep its piece of the overall industry †against the industry’s significant contenders, particularly Microsoft. Notwithstanding, the above activity didn't prompted the normal advantages †in 1993, the misfortunes of the firm were evaluated to $8 billion (Meyer et al. 2005). In 2003 the firm’s key organizers recognized significant disappointments in the organization’s flexibly chain the executives systems; endeavors were made for refreshing existing gracefully chain the board rehearses. The Integrated gracefully chain (ISC) has been a plan presented for aiding towards the disposal of deferrals in the firm’s tasks †as these postponements were identified with disappointments in the current flexibly chain the executives system (Paton et al. 2006). The update of the specific part of the association went on for a long time, 2003 and 2004 and prompted the presentation of an incorporated arrangement for dealing with the gracefully c hain relations in the entirety of their angles. The above change plan contributed in the improvement of the firm’s gracefully chain the board. In any case, certain ramifications were not kept away from, a reality that prompted the restriction of the plan’s benefits †as arranged by the initiators of the specific task. 2.2 Implications of progress started in IBM Despite the way that change, as a feature of IBM’s key arranging process, has been generally lined up with the hierarchical needs and the economic situations, still, the adequacy of the important plans is somewhat constrained †in any event contrasted with the assets drew in and the readiness made for the specific activities. The purposes behind the postponements in the improvement of the organization’s execution should be distinguished and assessed; likewise, the potential disappointments in the plans of progress, as advanced in the

Monday, June 29, 2020

Advertising Images And Corporate Logos - Free Essay Example

Advertising Everywhere we look, we see advertisements and logos. These features of capitalist commodity culture have become not just ways of selling goods but an inescapable mode of modern communication (Cartwright and Sturken, 2001). In the commodity culture of the twenty-first century, advertising images and corporate logos are no longer simply a part of the marketing strategies of consumer goods manufacturers, but features of our culture. Many members of the advertising profession see advertising as consistent with the needs of a democratic society, helping to make consumers aware of available market choices and educating consumers about product benefits (Myers, 1996). But the vision of advertising as a democratic information service is distorted by the fact that â€Å"it is the job of each individual advertiser to promote one product at the expense of competing products, and, implicitly, to systematically foreclose the appeal of alternatives by creating desire† (Myers, 1996, p.485). Marxist analysts have constructed advertising as the iconographic signifier of multinational capitalism (Nava, Blake et al, 1997). This construction portrays capitalism, commodity culture, and therefore advertising as inherently flawed, as bad and beyond redemption. By analysing single ads, theorists come to conclusions where poor consumers are duped into buying more than they really need. Consumption will never fulfil the true human needs, because the fulfilment of these needs would mean changing our lifestyles and societies, it will never happen. According to Marxist theories large corporations control everyday social and cultural identities nationally and globally, whilst their global brands make the world seem more uniform, denying real choice. Although Marxist criticism gives a good account of the state of the contemporary consumer societies, it tends to dismiss or ignore the trends in twenty-first century culture. Adverts and logos are an essential feature of post-moder n life, where individuality, consumption, freedom, fragmentation and heterogeneity are the main features of Western societies. Post-modern cultures and societies are constantly changing and cultural practices are constantly being reinvented. Advertising is part of the culture of capitalism where meanings are a constant site of struggle. Commodities are understood to be a central part of these societies and individuals participate in the exchange of commodities in search of new trends, new meanings for coolness. Post-modern culture is above all a mix of different things. Art, politics, trends, consumption, economic issues and social relationships all mix with each other and in the end none of the features of contemporary life would have a meaning without the others. Although the influence of large corporations is bigger than ever, there still remain sites for resistance. Resistances and subcultural trends work in a constant cycle with market forces that appropriate them into the main stream culture. Therefore, the impact of advertising and branding is constantly being renegotiated. However, despite being a well-established part of contemporary culture, advertising continues to attract moralistic disapproval. One could ask why does advertising attract more disapproval than other forms of post-modern culture, say, television, magazines, cinema or the music industry?

Saturday, June 6, 2020

AP Test Scores 2016

Below  are the score distribution results  for all 2016 Advanced Placement tests. For AP test results by percent of testers, see the related post. AP Test Scores 2016 AP TestTests12345Avg ALL EXAMS4,559,273883,6821,055,2011,118,529880,516621,3452.85 ART: HISTORY24,8702,7716,8686,9405,5872,7042.94 BIOLOGY231,97623,73067,22977,93648,18714,8942.84 CALCULUS AB294,45691,88728,95051,23950,97771,4032.94 CALCULUS BC112,69514,3316,55819,58917,55754,6603.81 CHEMISTRY144,79232,53036,58639,85021,80314,0232.64 CHINESE LANG. CULTURE10,2564543191,6391,7226,1224.24 COMPUTER SCIENCE A54,37912,8986,80112,51111,03711,1323.01 ECONOMICS: MACRO124,87933,77421,82120,39129,05819,8352.83 ECONOMICS: MICRO70,56914,08110,13816,16319,29610,8913.04 ENGLISH LANG. COMP539,35768,235173,529146,15594,38757,0512.81 ENGLISH LITERATURE397,70548,114133,227116,85370,38629,1252.75 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE147,37642,33038,06921,74234,10811,1272.55 EUROPEAN HISTORY107,35113,31237,88431,31217,0667,7772.70 FRENCH LANG. CULTURE20,0681,0673,9956,8015,1433,0623.26 GERMAN LANG. CULTURE4,5654191,0061,2911,0138363.18 GOVERNMENT POLITICS COMP20,9113,4364,5264,3244,4164,2093.07 GOVERNMENT POLITICS U.S.294,91174,48670,81473,48839,88936,2342.64 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY182,13853,25034,98236,03636,40621,4642.66 ITALIAN LANG. CULTURE2,6192245478434875183.20 JAPANESE LANG. CULTURE2,1503511514471731,0283.64 LATIN 6,5577531,5052,1061,3668273.00 MUSIC THEORY18,6392,7014,8734,5193,2063,3402.98 PHYSICS 1161,19749,92149,45733,83421,4136,5722.29 PHYSICS 223,4432,0187,5568,2333,7511,8852.83 PHYSICS C: ELEC. MAGNET.20,3962,4743,8412,8094,7176,5553.44 PHYSICS C: MECHANICS47,9784,7496,6108,90813,16914,5423.54 PSYCHOLOGY284,88261,87240,58854,55174,22353,6483.06 RESEARCH2,518588159973932552.99 SEMINAR11,4596172,6076,2171,3616572.90 SPANISH LANG. CULTURE153,2132,11714,23941,60953,41141,8373.77 SPANISH LITERATURE23,1441,8095,3748,7445,4701,7473.00 STATISTICS198,55347,41431,21249,39042,93027,6072.86 STUDIO ART: 2-D DESIGN29,8346644,64910,5109,8524,1593.41 STUDIO ART: 3-D DESIGN4,9351461,1091,7641,2676493.24 STUDIO ART: DRAWING17,7944482,6536,9094,8212,9633.40 US HISTORY485,262118,184113,037109,40486,95557,6822.70 WORLD HISTORY281,44656,05781,07682,47543,51318,3252.60 AP Test Scores 2016 Below  are the score distribution percentages for all 2016 Advanced Placement tests. For AP test results by student count, see the related post. AP Test Scores 2016 - % By Score AP TestTests12345Avg ALL EXAMS4,559,27319.423.124.519.313.62.85 ART: HISTORY24,87011.127.627.922.510.92.94 BIOLOGY231,97610.229.033.620.86.42.84 CALCULUS AB294,45631.29.817.417.324.22.94 CALCULUS BC112,69512.75.817.415.648.53.81 CHEMISTRY144,79222.525.327.515.19.72.64 CHINESE LANG. CULTURE10,2564. COMPUTER SCIENCE A54,37923.712.523.020.320.53.01 ECONOMICS: MACRO124,87927.017.516.323.315.92.83 ECONOMICS: MICRO70,56920.014.422.927.315.43.04 ENGLISH LANG. COMP539,35712.732.227.117.510.62.81 ENGLISH LITERATURE397,70512.133.529.417.77.32.75 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE147,37628.725.814.823.17.62.55 EUROPEAN HISTORY107,35112.435.329. FRENCH LANG. CULTURE20,0685.319.933.925.615.33.26 GERMAN LANG. CULTURE4,5659.222.028.322.218.33.18 GOVERNMENT POLITICS COMP20,91116.421.620.721.120.13.07 GOVERNMENT POLITICS U.S.294,91125.324.024.913.512.32.64 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY182,13829.219.219.820.011.82.66 ITALIAN LANG. CULTURE2,6198.620.932.218.619.83.20 JAPANESE LANG. CULTURE2,15016. LATIN 6,55711.523.032.120.812.63.00 MUSIC THEORY18,63914.526. PHYSICS 1161,19731.030.721. PHYSICS 223,4438.632. PHYSICS C: ELEC. MAGNET.20,39612.118.813.823.132.13.44 PHYSICS C: MECHANICS47,9789.913.818.627.430.33.54 PSYCHOLOGY284,88221.714. RESEARCH2,5182.332.439.615.610.12.99 SEMINAR11,4595.422.854.311.95.72.90 SPANISH LANG. CULTURE153,2131.49.327.234.927.33.77 SPANISH LITERATURE23,1447.823.237.823.67.53.00 STATISTICS198,55323.915.724.921.613.92.86 STUDIO ART: 2-D DESIGN29,8342.215.635. STUDIO ART: 3-D DESIGN4,9353.022.535.725.713.23.24 STUDIO ART: DRAWING17,7942.514.938.827.116.73.40 US HISTORY485,26224.423.322.517.911.92.70 WORLD HISTORY281,44619.928.829.315.56.52.60